How safe are denture relines?

We’ve recently received a number of inquiries about the potential toxicity of denture relines, so we figured it’s time for another blog post.

What’s a reline?

A reline is the procedure used to resurface the tissue side of a denture with new material. It is common to have a denture relined every few years, as a reline can extend the life of a denture and improve its fit.

Are there toxicity concerns related to relines?

As with the acrylic resin, from which dentures are made, reline materials contain residual substances that can leach from the denture and into the mouth.

“Denture relining materials contain non-reacted constituents that may leach out during use inducing local toxic or irritative effects” (Dahl et al., 2006).

The substances found to leach vary across different materials ;Brozek et al. (2011) found soft lining materials to leach MMA, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate, and dibutyl phthalate, and in other studies, phthalates were found to leach from soft-lining materials (Munksgaard, 2004; Munksgaard, 2005).

Are some types of relines safer than others?

Yes. Hard relines use acrylics; soft relines can be acrylic, vinyl, or silicone. A hard permanent reline is performed in the laboratory using denture base acrylic, while a “chairside” reline (also called a direct reline) is performed in the office. Hard permanent relines require heat curing in the laboratory, while chairside relines, when acrylic is used, rely on auto-cure acrylic (also called “self cure” or “cold cure” acrylic). Auto cure acrylics generally do not polymerize as thoroughly as heat cure acrylics, and thus are less biocompatible.

In addition, in chairside relines, the reline material is in direct contact with oral tissues as it polymerizes. In one study, five cytotoxic compounds were found to leach from hard chairside reline materials, including isobutyl methacrylate (IBMA), 1,6-hexanediol dimethacrylate (1,6-HDMA), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), methacrylic acid (MA) and benzoic acid (BA) (Chaves et al., 2010).

What can I do?

While they are certainly convenient – the procedure is performed right in the office while you wait – chairside reline materials are less biocompatible than those of hard permanent relines. For this reason, chairside relines should be avoided. If your denture needs a reline, request a hard permanent reline performed by the laboratory. You may have to wait a day or two to receive your denture, but you’ll be exposed to fewer residual chemicals. You’ll also be less likely to encounter the unpleasant smell or taste – or even worse, a burning sensation or discomfort – that some patients experience with chairside relines.

Pure Cure Dental Technology is the creator of Denture Detox, the first product to help remove toxins and allergens from dentures, and the author of the Free Report on Denture Toxicity. We invite any questions you may have about dentures, the issue of denture toxicity, or denture health in general. 

By Melissa Mesku 

Scientific studies referenced in this blog post can be found in the bibliography of our Free Report on Denture Toxicity. 

Denture adhesive: new year, new goo

If you’ve managed to keep your new year’s resolutions thus far – a whole month into 2016! – congrats on the new year and the “new you.” But if you’re like most of us, your resolutions have started to slide like an old denture. Which brings us to the point of this short blog post: just a quick reminder to not let your oral care slip.

Most resources recommend that dentures be replaced every five years. If your denture requires adhesive in order to stay put, that’s a telltale sign that your denture does not fit correctly and that it’s time for a high-quality reline or a new denture entirely. Don’t double up on denture goo – in 2011, some denture creams were shown to cause zinc poisoning. Not only is excessive use of denture cream potentially harmful, it’s also uncomfortable. The best way to keep your denture from sliding is to have it relined or, if it’s been a few years, go for a new one.

Pure Cure Dental Technology is the creator of Denture Detox, the first product to help remove toxins and allergens from dentures, and the author of the Free Report on Denture Toxicity. We invite any questions you may have about dentures, the issue of denture toxicity, or denture health in general. 

By Melissa Mesku 

Check us out on Toxic Free Talk Radio

Debra Lynn Dadd, author of Toxic Free and 6 other books on nontoxic living, invited us to speak with her on her radio show, Toxic Free Talk Radio. The hour-long show aired on September 17, 2015 and can be heard on her website. Check it out for an overview of denture toxicity and what we’re doing to address it.

Detox Your Dentures

Pure Cure Dental Technology is the creator of Denture Detox, the first product to help remove toxins and allergens from dentures, and the author of the Free Report on Denture Toxicity. We invite any questions you may have about dentures, the issue of denture toxicity, or denture health in general. 

By Melissa Mesku

Even Madonna faces denture stigma

remin-2-melissa-meskuStrange as it may be, we recently published an article on Madonna, the rapper Drake, and dentures. In it we discuss the notion of denture stigma – social stigma against people who wear dentures. We also look at some of the findings from a recent study on denture wearers, humorously named Biting into Denture Care. Some of the more surprising findings include this:

“[N]early 63% of denture wearers said they’d kept their dentures a secret from someone. Of these, 32% didn’t tell their friends, 10% their sibling(s). Seven percent of denture wearers even managed to keep it a secret from their spouse.” The article uses these numbers to show how some struggle with social stigma about dentures and provides some suggestions for dental professionals to help turn that around.  Check out the article here.

Pure Cure Dental Technology is the creator of Denture Detox, the first product to help remove toxins and allergens from dentures, and the author of the Free Report on Denture Toxicity. We invite any questions you may have about dentures, the issue of denture toxicity, or denture health in general. 

By Melissa Mesku 

Denture allergy, irritation, pain and other denture problems

Is your denture giving you pain or discomfort? Of the estimated 35 million denture wearers in the United States, rest assured you’re not alone. Many people have experienced discomfort, irritation, pain, inflammation, burning mouth or even allergic reactions from wearing dentures. The bad news may be that your denture is causing you trouble. The good news is that it can be fixed. Dentures should not cause you pain – if a denture is hurting you, something is wrong.

The bad news may be that your denture is causing you trouble. The good news is that it can be fixed. Dentures should not cause you pain – if a denture is hurting you, something is wrong.

A bad fit

The most common complaints of denture pain happen when a denture doesn’t fit right. As it moves around in the mouth, it bumps against the gums and tender tissue in the oral mucosa. Over time it can get really unpleasant, causing many denture wearers to rely on adhesives and denture creams to help keep their dentures in place. However, a denture that truly fits shouldn’t require the use of adhesive.

  • If your denture is new, yet after a few weeks it still doesn’t seem to right, don’t suffer in silence; have your dentist provide you with a denture that fits
  • If your denture is a couple years old and doesn’t fit like it used to, your dentist can have it relined with heat cured acrylic
  • If your denture is over five years old, it’s time to have it replaced, not just for fit and aesthetics but for sanitary and safety reasons

There are a number of other reasons that dentures may elicit irritation or discomfort. Some problems are well-known and others less so.

“Acrylic resin dentures have the potential to elicit irritation, inflammation, and an allergic response of the oral mucosa” (Tsuchiya et al., 1994).

“[A]crylic denture bases contain residual monomer which may cause some side effects such as hypersensitivity of oral tissues… Many studies have found that substances leached out from acrylic resin can cause irritation of oral tissue, inflammation, or even an allergic reaction…” (Golbidi and Asghari, 2009).

Irritation

Irritation is a broad topic. It doesn’t just mean getting annoyed (ha ha!). It is a problem mentioned with some regularity in studies on dentures. Irritation can have a number of causes. A possible culprit leading to irritation could be residual substances leaching from the denture. Toxic and allergenic substances have been shown to have the ability to leach from resin-based dentures and into the mouth. Methyl methacrylate (MMA) and formaldehyde are known irritants that may elute out of conventional resin-based dentures. Irritation can be a local effect resulting in oral discomfort for the denture wearer.

Burning mouth

Some people have described a sensation of burning in the mouth. Burning Mouth Syndrome is characterized by an oral burning sensation in the absence of any organic disorders of the oral cavity, and its cause is unknown. However, some studies have linked cases of burning mouth to the leachable substances in dentures. Purello-D’Ambrosio et al. (2000) linked a case of burning mouth syndrome to cadmium in a denture; in another study regarding a patient’s report of burning mouth in Feilzer (2009), “In this case, ultimately the complaint could be solved by eliminating exposure to possible allergenic components of denture base resins.” There is a difference between a sensation of burning mouth, and an actual diagnosis of Burning Mouth Syndrome. In either case, it is recommended to see your dentist and possibly an allergist in order to discover its etiology.

Inflammation

Inflammation can be incredibly uncomfortable. It can also be quite vexing if the cause is not immediately apparent. In many cases, inflammation of the mouth and lips is referred to as stomatitis. If it is ultimately found to be related to the denture one wears, it’s called denture stomatitis. According to Tsuchiya et al. (1993), “Formaldehyde is responsible for allergic inflammation in acrylic denture wearers.”

Denture Stomatitis 

Incidences of denture-related stomatitis have shown many different causes. In Anil et al. (2000), the combination of MMA and formaldehyde were shown to “synergistically promote microbial proliferation and cause stomatitis” (qtd. in Bhola et al., 2009). “Allergic reactions to… resin-based dental materials have been reported. These reactions are mainly denture stomatitis due to allergy to polymethyl methacrylate denture base material” (Moharamzadeh et al., 2009). In another study, Allergic Contact Stomatitis Caused by Acrylic Monomer in a Denture, Koutis and Freeman (2001) state, “While allergy to acrylates is a rare cause of stomatitis, this possibility must be considered in patients presenting with oral symptoms.”

Allergy

Colloquially, people may refer to negative reactions as evidence of allergy, but clinical allergy requires testing before a diagnosis can be given. Unfortunately for many, it’s not well known that dentures have the ability to leach cytotoxic and allergenic substances. As a result, many denture wearers suffer without knowing the cause. MMA that leaches from dental acrylic is “the most significant allergen for patients” among other substances, but “it is important to recognize that basically all components of PMMA resins [denture base material] are allergenic” (Geurtsen, 2009). If your denture is causing you problems beyond mere fit, there is a possibility that residual substances leaching out of the denture are to blame.

  • If your denture is giving you pain, discomfort, irritation, burning mouth, inflammation, stomatitis, etc., talk to your dentist
  • If you suspect you may have an allergy to substances leaching from your denture, ask your dentist about alternative materials that may alleviate your symptoms
  • If you are concerned about the toxins and allergens that have been shown to leach from resin-based dentures, consider detoxifying your denture.

It’s an unfortunate fact that typical resin-based dentures have the ability to leach residual substances like toxins, allergens and irritants. Whether we like it or not, “[w]earing dental acrylic prosthesis causes adverse reactions to oral tissues due to bioactive leachables from resins” (Çelebi et al., 2008). But that doesn’t mean denture wearers have to suffer. Be proactive and take steps to alleviate any pain, discomfort, or concerns you may have.

For further information on denture problems and how to safeguard your health, check out our Free Report on Denture Toxicity.

Pure Cure Dental Technology is the creator of Denture Detox, the first product to help remove toxins and allergens from dentures, and the author of the Free Report on Denture Toxicity. We invite any questions you may have about dentures, the issue of denture toxicity, or denture health in general. 

By Melissa Mesku 

Scientific studies referenced in this blog post can be found in the bibliography of our Free Report on Denture Toxicity. 

Nontoxic dentures

denture-toxins-allergens-non-toxic-blog

Is there such a thing as a non-toxic denture? This is one of the most common questions we are asked at denturedetox.com.

The toxicity of everyday consumer products is of concern to a growing number of people. From bisphenol-A (BPA) in canned goods and water bottles, to phthalates in children’s toys, to cadmium in jewelry, exposure to toxins and allergens is widespread. So widespread, in fact, that those three substances just mentioned have also been found to leach from resin-based dental materials (cadmium and phthalates can leach from dentures and bisphenol-A from restorative materials).

Some consumer products containing such substances have been recalled, and there is now increased demand for products that are free from toxins. As a result, alternative products have entered the marketplace which sometimes bear the term “non-toxic” indicating the product does not contain some particular controversial toxin. However, it is important to note that the phrase “non-toxic” is often simply a marketing term. Much like the phrase “all natural,” its meaning is not specific. (Another such phrase is “chemical-free” – an absurd phrase, considering that all matter is made up of chemicals.) The term “non-toxic” is often over-used, often on products that are merely free from the latest substance under media scrutiny. So-called non-toxic products are not necessarily as safe or healthy as marketers would like us to believe. Sometimes products can contain other toxic substances that merely have yet to be deemed unsafe.

Amidst all this, people may find themselves asking which consumer products are truly non-toxic, and in our particular case, which dentures are non-toxic. The answer depends on the material that a product is made of and the way that it behaves. In the case of consumer goods, one of the most common materials is plastic. There are a wide variety of plastics and some are safer than others.

Dentures are most commonly made of acrylic resin, a material in the plastics family. The chemical makeup of plastics that allows them to be malleable and flexible is, unfortunately, at the heart of why plastics aren’t so ideal. Plastics are not as biologically compatible as we’d like them to be. They degrade; it is in their nature to do so. As plastics degrade, they release substances. Aside from pollution from plastics factories, exposure to the toxins in plastics results from the plastic’s ability to release substances. The CDC found bisphenol A in the urine of 95% of adults sampled in 1988–1994. Eating food and soup that comes in aluminum cans (due to the BPA in the liner in the can) is an often-cited culprit.

Similarly, denture acrylics contain substances that are toxic and allergenic, and those substances are known to leach out of dentures and into the mouth.

It stands to reason that, upon learning this, denture wearers would want to seek out dentures that are non-toxic. So we ask, does such a thing exist?

A truly non-toxic product, to be worthy of the name, would ideally contain no toxic materials. Or, barring that, any toxic materials inside it would not be able to seep out, leach out, elute, or disperse; and no toxic substances would be able to be ingested or absorbed by the human body. While plenty of plastic-based consumer goods may be marketed as non-toxic, it could well be argued that, given the capacity that plastics have to leach their substances, no plastic-based product should be called non-toxic.

When talking about plastics, the word “non-toxic” should be considered a colloquial phrase and not a scientific term denoting total absence of toxic material.

This is not a statement you’ll hear from major consumer brands. Major brands have a vested interest in making the public believe their products are completely safe. Yet new studies continue to come out showing the adverse effects of substances like BPA; a 2014 study showed that BPA has the ability to raise blood pressure within a few hours.

“Non-toxic” is such an easy catch-all term that we, too, were tempted to use it to describe our services. But our company was founded specifically to rectify a number of problems in the industry, so we didn’t want to jump on the bandwagon. Similarly, patients’ informed consent is incredibly important to us. For these reasons we refrain from referring to any dentures as “non-toxic” in any formal, official, or scientific context. When talking about plastics, the word “non-toxic” should be considered a colloquial phrase and not a scientific term denoting total absence of toxic material.

The most common denture base material, and what we also used when we crafted new dentures, is polymethyl methacrylate or PMMA. As an acrylic resin, it has the ability to leach some of its toxic and allergenic substances, so we are inclined to argue that the term “non-toxic” should not be used to describe this material (the material is also marketed as Lucite and “acrylic glass” and is commonly called non-toxic by manufacturers).

Are there other materials that dentures can be made with? Technically, yes, but alternative materials do not have the same strength and functionality properties and thus are generally reserved only for patients who are clinically allergic to methacrylates. Though there are some concerns regarding its biocompatibility, PMMA remains the most appropriate material for denture bases.

If you suspect you have an allergy to methacrylates, discuss it with your dentist or doctor. While other denture base materials are less ideal from a structural standpoint, alternative materials are available that may meet your needs.

Pure Cure Dental Technology is the creator of Denture Detox, the first product to help remove toxins and allergens from dentures, and the author of the Free Report on Denture Toxicity. We invite any questions you may have about dentures, the issue of denture toxicity, or denture health in general. 

By Melissa Mesku 

How can I tell if my denture is safe?

denture-detox-infographic-allergic-toxic-safe-denture

Pure Cure Dental Technology is the creator of Denture Detox, the first product to help remove toxins and allergens from dentures, and the author of the Free Report on Denture Toxicity. We invite any questions you may have about dentures, the issue of denture toxicity, or denture health in general. 

By Melissa Mesku 

65% of dentists are wrong about their dental lab… are you one of them?

remin-dental-labs-melissa-meskuWe recently wrote for the dental publication Remin on a wild story involving illegal dental laboratories. We used the story as a way to communicate to dentists the importance of looking into the practices of the dental labs they rely on.

“In a 2009 American Dental Association member survey, nearly 65% of dentists responded that they believe dental technicians and laboratories are regulated in their state. This is not the case. In fact, only four states in the U.S. require either certification or continuing education,” the Dental Tribune reported. Given how stringently dental offices are run, it’s remarkable that dental laboratories have flown under the radar for so long.

Check out the story here – and don’t be too surprised by what you find!

Pure Cure Dental Technology is the creator of Denture Detox, the first product to help remove toxins and allergens from dentures, and the author of the Free Report on Denture Toxicity. We invite any questions you may have about dentures, the issue of denture toxicity, or denture health in general. 

By Melissa Mesku 

Am I allergic to my denture?

Are you concerned you might be allergic to your denture?

“Allergic reactions to… resin-based dental materials have been reported. These reactions are mainly denture stomatitis due to allergy to polymethyl methacrylate denture base material” (Moharamzadeh et al., 2009).

“Dental patients are exposed to MMA leached from some dental appliances and the effects, at least in vitro, appear toxic to cells and may cause local mucosal irritation or even an allergic reaction” (Leggat and Kedjarune, 2003).

Most people don’t have negative reactions from using their dentures. But some people do. Colloquially, people may refer to negative reactions as evidence of allergy, but clinical allergy requires testing before a diagnosis can be given.

In the case of a denture allergy, it is generally the denture base material itself which causes the mouth to become sensitized and present an allergic response. The most common type – hard dentures made of acrylic resin – are susceptible to leaching residual substances that are cytotoxic and allergenic. One substance in particular is methyl methacrylate, or MMA, also called residual monomer. It is a common culprit of allergy to dental materials: “Numerous reports suggest that residual monomer may be responsible for mucosal irritation and sensitization of tissues” (Jorge et al., 2003). Other substances including formaldehyde may leach from the denture base and also lead to sensitization. According to Tsuchiya et al. (1993), “Formaldehyde is responsible for allergic inflammation in acrylic denture wearers.”

“Although these reactions are rare, considering the millions of treatments provided, many individuals may potentially be affected” (Moharamzadeh et al., 2009).

Read our blog post Denture allergy, irritation, pain and other denture problems for more about ascertaining whether your problem with your denture is indeed due to allergy.

Pure Cure Dental Technology is the creator of Denture Detox, the first product to help remove toxins and allergens from dentures, and the author of the Free Report on Denture Toxicity. We invite any questions you may have about dentures, the issue of denture toxicity, or denture health in general. 

By Melissa Mesku 

Scientific studies referenced in this blog post can be found in the bibliography of our Free Report on Denture Toxicity.